Technical Note

Xile Deep Penetrating Sealer (DPS)ABC

 1 Introduction

Xile inorganic water based penetration waterproofing agent (hereinafter referred to as Xile Deep penetration Sealer ( DPS), is based on building and bridge waterproofing requirements, combining the actual situation of China's resources, developed from a consistent national building materials industry standard JC/T1018-2006 waterproof material. It is non-toxic, tasteless and environment-friendly with high permeability, sprayed directly on the cement mortar, concrete structure surface, can rapidly penetrate the internal and cement mixture, the alkali material reaction, coupling generates insoluble in water,gels, within the plugged pores, closed pores channels, increase density to form a permanent and reliable waterproofing and concrete structures and improve the mechanical strength, it has mold, anti-erosion, anti-acid erosion features. Performance equivalent to American, water repellent products. According to information on DPS products in American, Japan, Southeast Asia, besides widely use in construction external waterproofing, also in the runway , airport, highways, bridges, water pipelines and other concrete projects, more generally used for reinforcement, maintenance, sealing, corrosion, resistance to wind erosion, the effect is significant.

Deep penetration Sealer ( DPS )is introduced into China since the 90's, has succeeded in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian, Beijing, Shanghai, Sichuan and Chongqing provinces and cities on roads and bridges, construction house (ground, wall) surface, the basement, water tower, pool , plant and workshop using the cumulative number of 10 million square meters building area, made more significant economic and social benefits.

Xiamen Xile Waterproof Technology Co., Ltd. has a more systematic discussion about the use of Deep penetration Sealer ( DPS )functionality and durability, to facilitate the expansion application, now part of the contents are summarized below.

2 Basic properties

2.1Catalyst,

Xile ( DPS )is activated by inorganic silica carrier, catalyst, additives pose a variety of functional groups. Catalyst is to determine the product quality, We develop the Xile DPS has a strong catalyst for catalysis, coupling effects, Waterproofing agent can penetrate quickly into the cement mortar, concrete and form a waterproof seal silicate gel, After the test (see Table 1) and the major technical indicators have reach and close to the levels of catalyst products and waterproofing agent of American.

 

Table 1 Performance Comparison of catalyst between Xile ( DPS )and American

 

Performance parameters

Xile DPS

American

Density (23 ± 1 ℃)

Effective matter content (%)

Viscosity (23 ± 1 ℃, S)

Surface tension (mN / m)

Gel time (min)

(23±1℃,RH70=10)

1.0314

24.7

13.6

24.114

Final setting 386

1.0982

24.5

11.20

24.970

Final setting 350

 

Note: (1) Both catalyst PH values are 7; (2) both the appearance of transparent liquid are yellow, no irritating odor; (3) storage stability are: 10 cycles of qualified, quality store airtight at room temperature constant; (4) catalytic properties are: hardening slurry well and find more hydrated crystals.

2.2 The product performance

the main properties of Xile DPS meets the standard of  JC/T1018-2006, DBJ01-54-2000

. To further understand the quality of the product case, Conducted a comparative test with American waterproofing agents, see the results in Table 2.

 

Table 2 Performance parameters of the Xile DPS compares with American

Performance parameters

Xile DPS

American

Viscosity (23 ± 1 ℃, S)

Density (23 ± 1 ℃)

Surface tension (mN / m)

Gel time (min)

(23±1℃,RH70=10)

10.40

1.09

24.381

Final setting 386

10.44

1.085

25.675

Final setting 350

 

Note: (1) Both  PH value are 12; (2) the appearance of both are colorless and transparent, odorless, nonflammable, non-toxic water-based solution; (3) permeability are: 24h penetration depth greater than 10mm , 7d penetration depth greater than 30mm; (4) storage stability are: 10 cycles of qualified, quality store airtight at room temperature constant.

Form Table 2 test results: the surface tension of liquid, appearance, density, PH, permeability, storage stability and other properties of both are nearly the same; gel time also are similar.

3 Features

3.1Penetration function

Xile DPS has a strong penetration function, mainly due to the introduction of various active catalyst additives and penetrant composition. After the application of verification proving that a variety use of new additive auxiliary and catalyst can be formulated into a low surface tension, good permeability and storage stability of waterproofing products.

3.1.1 Concrete foundfation test

the penetration of Xile DPS in cement mortar, concrete structures is along the capillary channel and enter the internal connected micro-cracks. To further understand the relationship between the penetration function of waterproofing and the density of structures , Comparison test conducted impermeability by brushing Xile DPS samples and uncoated blank basis samples.

Impermeability comparative test by GBJ 82-85 " Concrete impermeability test methods ", At first on the uncoated blank specimen take a impermeability test until the seepage to measure impermeability pressure, After unloading mode , specimen face is brushed 3 times with Xile DPS, re-install conservation model for impermeability test after 3d curing to determine impermeability pressure, Comparison of calculated percentage of impermeability pressure,

The results shown in Table 3

 

Table 3.Comparative impermeability of Xile DPS

 

Specimen number

seepage pressure (MPa)

anti-Chung pressure increase (%)

 

Blank reference specimen

brushed Xile DPS specimen

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

1.0

1.3

0.8

0.9

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.6

100

80

100

71

30

23

Impermeability of the Table 3 Comparison of experimental results can be seen after brushing Xile DPS, the impermeability of concrete specimen pressure increased significantly, whereas the rate of increase and the impermeability of the reference specimen. No. 1-4 impermeability pressure low (1MPa below) benchmark test specimen, increased the magnitude of the ratio of 71% to 100%; No. 5-6 impermeability pressure above the benchmark in 1MPa specimens, although the impermeability pressure increased to 1.3 ~ 1.6MPa, but the value increased only by the degree of 23% to 30%. This shows that the use of Xile DPS is more effective where structures is in the worse dense foundation level.

, 3.1.2 Construction impact

In Xile DPS penetration process, the active component is under the action of carrier and the water, due to the low surface tension, while the penetration of the internal structures, so before the construction the basal plane should be fully wetted, and to keep wet after construction.

3.2 Seal and compacting function

Xile DPS penetrated form the surface into the internal structure of cement mortar concrete

Immediately with the cement hydration process produced Ca (OH) 2 reaction of water-insoluble and has a certain strength of the silica gel crystals, precipitation of other alkali substances,

forming a permanent seal with the structures blend waterproofing.

3.2. Close solid feature

Xile DPS is penetrated by the surface structure of cement mortar concrete internally, immediately with the cement hydration process produced Ca (OH) 2 reaction, Generation does not dissolve in water and has a certain strength of the silica gel crystals, precipitation of other alkali material to form a permanent seal waterproofing with the structures.

3.2.1Gel reaction 

 

 Cement mortar, concrete structures by water soaking wet, the internal Ca (OH) 2 is gradually precipitated, the precipitation amount is growing with the time moisture increasing, which provide the the gel reaction conditions for waterproofing. condensation performance in the gel time was found during testing, with the Ca (OH) 2 concentration increases, the time of waterproofing gel initial setting is corresponding shorten, which can show that to master and control of Ca (OH) 2 concentration on the improvement to improve sealing function is very important. In construction applications, has taken to extend the base surface moisture soaking time and the old concrete (mortar) 0.3mm these cracks appear, the use of saturated Ca (OH) 2 solution as pretreatment tests have achieved noticeable results.

3.2.2 new silicone gel crystals and precipitate

To further learn more the effect of the waterproofing agent of Xile DPS in the mixture of cement hydration process on the mineral composition of cement, No. 425 # ordinary portland cement use made of the standard grinding,, the grinding is observed cement facies under the polarizing microscope, and with uncoated cement grinding contrast. It is observed that specimen brushing Xile DPS, a large number of gels within the gap is filled, it is clear to see more of the silica gel crystals, the internal organization of dense, blank basis samples uncoated on the test is relatively large interconnected pores, silica gel crystals rare inside. Thus, Xile DPS can accelerate cement hardening, resulting in gel, cement block inside gap, to improve and enhance the sealing cement structure, permeability, water resistance.

Cement facies described indicate in Figure 1.

3.2.2 new silicone gel crystals precipitate

To learn more about Xile DPS waterproofing agent in the hydration process of cement mixing material on the mineral composition of cement, use is made of 425 # ordinary portland cement standard grinding, the grinding on the polarizing microscope cement facies observed, and with the uncoated cement grinding contrast. Observed : brushing Xile DPS on grinding, a large number of gels within is filled, it is clear to see more of the silica gel crystals, the internal compact organization, and uncoated blank test grinding within the relatively large interconnected pores, silica gel crystals rare. Thus, Xile DPS can accelerate cement hardening, gel formation, cement block inside gap, to improve and enhance the sealing cement structure, permeability, water resistance. Lithofacies depicted in Figure 1.


(a)                         (b)

Figure 1 coated and uncoated Xile DPS cement facies (× 450 single-polarized light)

(A) uncoated Xile DPS             (b) coated Xile DPS

Xile DPS forms the new silicon gel crystal while penetrating into Internal structures, with the moisture conservation, ground surface will separate out a white precipitate. This means that the waterproofing penetrated deeper base plane, perfect gel reaction, and harmful potassium, sodium oxide has been precipitated.

3.3 Reinforcing function

Cement mortar, concrete structures treated after brushing Xile DPS,, produces a new gel and silicate, to form a seal layer to promote cement hydration and further improved to increase strength. Therefore, the application of Xile DPS in restoration for old concrete structures always has a reinforcing function.

Reinforced by the Xile DPS after repair , the concrete strength meets the design requirements, and achieved satisfactory results.

4  Durability

The most concern question of Xile DPS is durability, CO 2 in atmospheric and the erosion of harmful media of surrounding environment affect the durability is the main erosion factors, for which first and foremost to enhance the durability of concrete to ensure that concrete on the density, pressure resistance, impermeability, resistance to wind erosion so as to achieve carbonation and corrosion. from the Xile DPS chemical mechanism and the composition of materials to meet the water-based inorganic coating waterproofing agent in the concrete surface is a necessary condition to ensure durability.

4.1 The anti-wind erosion carbonation

Anti-wind erosion carbonation performance testing in the laboratory, at first production 2 groups, line of 100mm × 100mm × 100mm concrete sample, put the concentration of 95% of CO 2 into the test carbon box, concrete specimen coated Xile DPS and blank concrete specimens are sealed in the test box 10d for accelerating the carbonation test. Then remove the broken it, measured depth of carbonation, described in Figure 2, Figure 3.


 Figure 2 State of blank piece of         Figure 3 .State of the piece coated

carbon benchmark test                 Xile DPS carbon benchmark test

 

The results show that the carbonation depth of largest gaps in specimen is up to 3cm, an average of 2cm; brushing Xile DPS specimen, the maximum carbonation depth is 1.5cm, an average of 1cm, Anti-wind carbonization performance significantly improved.

4.2 Anti-corrosion

Xile DPS has some corrosion resistance. Both blank concrete specimens treated Xile DPS three times and untreated specimens are at strong acidic medium solution (PH value <1), soaked for 6 months, take out to test their physical and mechanical properties, to found that the bending and the compressive strength of soaking handle specimen is better than the untreated samples after soaking, the results shown in Table 4, because one other Xile DPS increases density of the surface concrete (mortar) treated , closed the channel of micro-gaps intruded by media; the other alkaline silicate material itself is anti-corrosive. However, from the view of anti-corrosion mechanism, the experimental results and practicability, it is more suitable for the corrosion of acid gas medium, and PH value of 4 or more (below the middle grade corrosion of the blank concrete) the corrosion for acidic action of parts under the corrosive water.

 

Table 4 Strength of the treated compared with untreated samples increased rate%

Medium

2% HCL

5% HCL

2% HNO 3

5% HNO 3

Bending to improve

Compressive strength increased

6.6~14.3

28.7~69.2

32.6~39.1

4.8~40

20.1~30.5

9.5~13.4

14.6~23.9

14.4~23.5

 

5 Conclusion

    Xile DPS is a green environmental protection, structural reinforcement, self-repair, multi-performance, simple to apply the unique properties of waterproofing materials, have been widely used in various types of concrete structures, waterproofing, corrosion protection, good effect, significant social and economic benefits.